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Tips for choosing the best office furniture

Confused by how many options you have for an office furniture?  To make it a little easier for you we choose to assemble this rundown of the most imperative things to remember while thinking about a specific item.

1-    Ergonomics

The science of designing a workplace with the abilities and needs of your employees in mind, also known as ergonomics, ought to be calculated into each bit of office furniture you buy.

From footrests, to adjustable monitor arms, to chairs that properly support the lower backs of your employees, ergonomics can have a major impact on the productivity, health, and happiness of your team members


2-    Make comfort a priority

Making sure that everyone in the office is in a comfortable working environment should be the top of your office furniture shopping criteria list.

If employees are suffering from the stiffness of body parts due to uncomfortable furniture and sitting in awkward positions, they are likely to feel lethargic and unlikely to work to the best of their ability.

3-    Warranty

Office furniture is an important investment, and you want to be sure that the products you choose are supported by trusted warranties. This will ensure that if you experience an issue with your office furniture, you will be able to have it dealt with quickly and affordably.

This highlights how comfortable, spacious office furniture will keep a workforce relaxed and ready for work


4-    A Full Back for Chairs

Office chairs are essential for productivity and reduction of lost hours due to injury, said Dr. Scott Schreiber. Office chairs should be comfortable and have a full back. They should provide a multitude of adjustable positions, including lumbar support, height, and recline settings.

5-    Breathable Upholstery is Better

An office chair’s upholstery must be comfortable to the touch if you’re going to sit on it all day. You don’t want it to be abrasive, itchy, or something that may cause your body to overheat. Even the Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program (CAP), which advises the Department of Defense and Federal Government, recommends a “breathable, medium texture upholstery.”

You cannot go for BMW on a Chinese car budget. Look for alternatives to high-end items if you are on a tight budget. Nilper provides you with the best quality products bundled with high responsible Warranty.

Finally, here are a few good sitting posture tips, according to the American Chiropractic Association:

·        Keep your feet on the floor (or on a footrest, if they don’t reach the floor)

·        Keep a small gap between the back of your knees and the front of your seat

·        Your knees should be at or below the level of your hips

·        Adjust the backrest of your chair to support your low- and mid-back

·        Avoid sitting in the same position for long periods of time.

Interested in seeing what office chairs we have available? Contact us to set up a time to visit our showroom or use our online websites to see them.

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The Benefits and history of polyurethane flexible foam

From your car seats, to your mattress and your running shoes, polyurethane flexible foam can be found in more places than you think. Without it, it is likely your life would be much less comfortable. But how did it all start and what’s the outlook for the years to come? Michel Baumgartner, Secretary General of the European association of flexible polyurethane foam blocks manufacturers (EUROPUR) explains.


Let’s start from the beginning, when and how was flexible foam first created?

Polyurethane was first made in Leverkusen (Germany) as early as 1937. However, the real history of flexible foam started in 1954 with the first commercial production in Europe and soon thereafter in the United States. From then on, the success was unstoppable. In just a few years flexible polyurethane foam became the material of choice for furniture upholstery and car seats; it also gained a very significant share in the mattresses market. Over time flexible polyurethane foam conquered new markets due to its unique properties; today, it can found in many different applications, from kitchen sponges to clothing, packaging, filters, or sound insulation, just to name a few. Polyurethane foam has become crucial to our daily comfort, without us ever hardly noticing it.


What is the comparative advantage of polyurethane flexible foam versus its competitors?

Polyurethane foam is versatile, lightweight, cost-efficient, and durable. The different families of polyurethane foam that have been developed over time allow producers to develop a virtually endless range of foam types each with specific properties to serve today’s multiple applications foams. No other material used for comfort applications can cover the same broad range of applications. It maintains its properties so well in time that products made out of polyurethane can last for many years.

In addition, flexible foam has environmental benefits. Being composed mostly of air, foam is extremely lightweight and therefore helps in emission reduction in transport applications.

How do you see the market develop in coming months and years?

Just to put things into perspective: we produce around 900,000 tonnes of flexible foam annually in the EU. If you put that in volume, it is equivalent to 9 times the Great Pyramid of Giza, every year. The polyurethane foam market in Europe has a dominant market share in the main applications it is used in (bedding, furniture and automotive). Generally, it evolves in line with the growth rate observed in the economy; however, in the mattresses market polyurethane foam keeps gaining in market share with competing products.

 But foam manufacturers are not resting on their laurels. They are constantly developing new products harnessing the foam’s unique properties. So, as European growth is slowly picking up, we are confident that the future will remain bright for our market


As the discussion on sustainability is more pertinent than ever, what initiatives has the industry taken to improve the product’s life cycle sustainability overtime?

Industry – and thereby I mean the entire supply chain, including raw materials producers – has worked hard to reduce its carbon footprint. In the past 10 years CO2 emissions for the production of flexible PU foam were reduced by 24%, as shown in a study EUROPUR released this year..

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Modern Office Furniture Pieces You Need Right Now-part2

8. Treadmill Desk

In today's busy world, who has time to exercise? The ultimate multi-tasker, a treadmill desk lets you lead a conference call and send emails all while you work out. Gets those steps while you get the job done.


Sitting or standing work desk

9. Adjustable Laptop Desk

Can't decide whether to work sitting or standing? Using a counter-balance system, these desks switch from seated to standing height silently in seconds. On castors, they roll with you from boardroom to break room, and can join you on the road. 


Electronic sitting or standing desk

10. Electronic Height Adjustable Desk

For larger desks, try an electronic adjuster for easy adaptability. Fitted with a power cord, these desks raise and lower at the touch of a button, while providing a much larger workstation.


balance stool works your core while you work

11. Balance Stool

Balance training is great for long-term health, and can easily be worked into the modern office environment. Balance stools encourage ergonomic core strength, much like a balance ball. But they take up a smaller footprint, and are offered in more professional designs.


Collaboration workspace furniture is modular

12. Modular Seating

Modular exemplifies modern seating, with its minimalism and flexibility for any meeting that might break out throughout the work day. Separate the modules for more formal business meetings, or push them together for collaborating. Configured concavely for community or convexly for privacy, they are incredibly versatile.


Elegant, modern swivel chair

13. Swivel Lounge Chair

If the movie Big were made today, Tom Hanks would have spun himself silly in this fashionable update to the swivel chair. Combining business with pleasure, these chairs are as beautiful as they are powerful. Comfortable, yet striking, in an easy-care fabric, they appeal to many senses. 


Simple, beautiful glass table

14. Glass & Acrylic Desk

Can your organization use more transparency? This desk is like a leaked memo. A brilliant glass top rests on a trendy acrylic base, combining elegance with innovation. A showstopper, this desk will add a unique tone to your space.


Work desk double are artwork

15. Twig White Desk

Functioning well as a desk or collaborative work space, this is one piece you'll want to showcase. A true work of art with solid construction, employees will clamor for this one.

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Modern Office Furniture Pieces You Need Right Now-part1

We recently wrote about the benefits of modern office furniture. The advantages include increased employee productivity, impressing visitors and more efficient space management - clearly, the furniture you use is integral to your success.

The latest office furniture designs can solve problems you didn't know you had. From chairs that charge phones, to desks that burn calories, to collaborative workspace furniture that does the multi-tasking for you. With high touch technologies tucked into your office furniture, you can maximize space and efficiency.


The Best Modern Office Furniture

Here are 15 smart office furniture pieces that are sure to spark workplace enthusiasm for your organization.


modern office furniture collapses to save space

1. Everywhere Table

Remember your grandma's table with that leaf she brought out for special occasions? This genius table designed by Herman Miller is the professional version to help you maximize office space management. With widths up to 72 inches, these tables can seat your largest meetings, then fold up and roll out of sight. Don't waste space with a conference room that usually sits empty, pop up a conference table whenever you need it in any open space.



2. Time Out Table

No, you haven't been bad. But you do need a break in your day. Or sometimes a quick meet and greet.

Time out tables offer a lounge-like appeal and footrests for renewing your energy. These multi-purpose desks are a break room staple across urban coworking spaces.


Bright purple office chair
3. Vibrant Armchair

Bring out your inner Skittles commercial. You will be sure to smile when you see get down to work in one of these spectacularly bright chairs - they will bring out the kid in you. In electrifying purple and shocking green, they will set you apart from the pack.


Ergonomic kneeling stool
4. Ergonomic Kneeling Stool

Benefits galore with this modern stool. It is designed to encourage a strong, upright posture and to relieve muscle strain. It also adds comfort at multiple heights.


Ultra mobile Mogo Seat

5. Mogo Seat

Pull up a chair literally anywhere, with this modern seating solution. Its pivoting seat leg engages your muscles, and at 2 pounds, it can go anywhere you do.


modern exercise ball chair

6. Zenergy Ball Chair

This new age version of the exercise ball is all grown up with this burst-proof and mesh-covered beauty. With multiple colors and a lightweight design, it will perk up your space in an instant.

Armchair with built in charging station
7. Charging Chair

Between your iPhone, your iPad and your iBrain, can there ever be enough outlets? Let your guests recharge after a long trip to meet you, or charge up during your meetings. Forget the battle for the chair near the outlet, this chair comes with its own.



Written by Greetly on April 24, 2018


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Office Decor Ideas to Inspire Your Team’s Best Work (part-5)

24. Customize your computer desktop

This is an easy one, but essential. Simply add a picture or graphic that you know will keep you inspired throughout the day as your desktop wallpaper. Change it up every few weeks to keep things fresh and new ideas brewing.



25. Add hanging calendars

hanging calendar

Never miss a meeting or important sales call again.

Serving both practical and eye-pleasing purposes, wall calendars will keep you on track with everyday tasks and ongoing projects and will remind you when upcoming vacations and holidays are on the horizon.

26. Keep framed photos of loved ones nearby

Keeping pictures of friends and family on your desk reminds you of what’s most important in life. The next time you’re stressing over a deadline, you’ll calm down once you glance over at Aunt Sharon hugging Grandma.


27. Add funky furniture


What’s not to love about crazy looking couches?

Having funky furniture around like cobalt blue lamps and patterned curtains transforms your traditional office space into a futuristic workspace that your friends will envy.

Adding “out there” furniture also creates a new and informal space for your team to meet, which fosters collaboration.


28. Add a coffee station

coffee station

Everyone loves coffee, especially when it’s free. Get a rolling island for the office, place a coffee maker, coffee and coffee filters on the tabletop, and mugs, cream and sugar in the storage compartment.

Your team can have fun rolling this around in the middle of the day taking people’s espresso orders.


29. Hang team photos

Share old work stories

Do you and your team set aside time for philanthropic ventures? Or perhaps designate one day out of the month to do a team-building activity?

Turn those good teamworking times into memories by snapping photos of your efforts and framing them around the office. Glancing at them periodically will remind you how good it felt to help out at the homeless shelter, prompting you to keep the good deeds going.


30. Add pops of color


Pick a few vibrant colors to incorporate throughout your space. Use a bright orange backsplash in your kitchen to point team members in the healthy snack direction.

Warm tones like reds and yellows stimulate productivity, so incorporate those in areas where team projects are worked on. Cool tones (think light blues and greens) create a more relaxing environment, so it’s best to utilize those in spaces like your breakroom.


31. Get a whiteboard

white board

Whether in your own space or communal area, add a whiteboard (or chalkboard) for a creative and intriguing look. Use this to check off to-dos, hold presentations and as an open invitation for team members to do the same.

Perks: You’re saving trees, you ensure your tasks are accomplished, and when the afternoon lull strikes, you can doodle for a creativity boost.


32. Add plants


Breathe new life into your office by adding plants. Potted plants can help you separate spaces in a natural way. And, they improve air quality in the office.


33. Position your desk properly


If you have a private office within your workspace, point your desk so you are facing sideways to team members walking by or wanting to pop in.

This way, you’re balancing privacy with openness without sacrificing your productivity rhythm.


34. Make your entryway warm and welcoming

Best Company Perks Office Space Google Slide

Your entryway is the first thing people notice when they come through your office doors, so you should think carefully about the impression you want this space to have.

How do you want your team and clients to feel as they walk into your office? At home? Ready to get down to business?

Make it inviting by incorporating fun couches and chairs, wall hangings that are reflective of your company’s vision and relevant magazines or news articles. If you have enough room, put a high-top table in the corner with a Keurig station and coffee mugs with a sign that says, “Grab a cup!”


35. Replace overhead lighting with lamps or task lights

office desk task lamp

Harsh fluorescent lighting isn’t comfortable for anyone. It hurts people’s eyes, causes headaches and plainly does not look good.

Replace your overhead lighting with industrial or contemporary floor lamps to match the rest of your office decor. This change creates a more open, cohesive space and it looks so much better.

36. Add a big clock

big clock

Never ask Julie what time is it again. Placing a can’t-miss, oversized clock in the center of your workspace is a modern way of keeping track of time and ties your office together.

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6factors you need to consider when buying furniture for your workspace

Exhausted. Bone tired. Eyes gritty from lack of sleep. After days of visiting office spaces and browsing on the net for the “perfect office” that suits your business and budget, you’ve finally found the one! You’re ready to hit the sack and sleep like a log and then you realized you still have to buy furniture to go with your new office.
Choosing the right furniture is as important as choosing the right type of office. It not only contributes to well-being, it also affects office productivity and entices prospective employees. Therefore, before marching to the nearest furniture shop, here are 6 things you must consider


Slide1 2

Financing startups is not easy. Every penny spent is an investment. You have to show to your investors that you’re wisely spending the money entrusted to you. Thus, before buying any furniture, consider the cost. How much money will you spend on a particular desk or chair? How many will you buy? Determining your budget beforehand will help you narrow down your choices without compromising quality.
To save, you can always opt to shop at a second-hand furniture store. Do your research on which thrift stores you can acquire slightly-used yet decently-priced items

3d rendering an interior of the office. Hall with reception.
Employees will be sitting and working most of the day, so providing them a comfortable chair and desk is a must. Nowadays, ergonomic chairs and desks become a trend for they make working easier, as supported by health studies. With the plethora of these products in the market, you can buy one at an affordable price.

Aside from chairs and desks, you can also buy other furniture and style your interior depending on your business type. Are you aiming for a cafe-like atmosphere where employees can easily communicate and collaborate with each other? Buy a huge table and a few chairs. Are you going for a formal feel with cubicles so that they can focus? Buy a desk with cubicle-dividers. Whatever your plans are, keep in mind that your choice should make your office a conducive environment for work.
Whatever your plans are, keep in mind that your choice should make your office a conducive environment for work

Types of Office for Startups

Flexibility and functionality
The next thing to consider is flexibility and functionality of the furniture. Does your desk have storage for files? Can you stretch your legs or take a cat nap under your table? Are they comfortable enough for your employees? If your answers are yes, then you’ve made a wise investment.

Furniture with multiple functionalities is always a better choice. When you balance functionality with low cost, you’re hitting two birds with one stone.

It is common sense to buy furniture proportionate in size to your office space. Bringing bulky ones will consume a huge chunk of your office. With the cramped space, you and your employees won’t be able to freely move around. Thus, first know the dimensions of your office and from there, research for ways on how to maximize it. Arranging furniture in a certain way can also help make your office look more spacious. The bottomline is to provide your office with the right furniture and remember to leave enough room for your team to be comfortable in

office isometric. detailed vector custom.
Aesthetic Value and Brand Identity
Purchase the kind of furniture that can contribute to the beauty of your office. Good office design lightens up the mood, eases stress, and increases productivity.
To do this, having a little background on the psychology of colors is an advantage. For instance, if you want your office to have a creative and energetic atmosphere, use the color orange. If you want to exude wisdom and tranquility, use blue. However, be mindful when choosing a multitude of different colors. If you wind up with a clashing mixture of them, it can disturb your company identity or cause headaches to your employees and any onlookers.
Furthermore, don’t choose furniture just because you like its color or design. You have to choose one that goes with your brand or your office personality. Your office furniture must transcend the aesthetic and comfort value it provides; it must also reflect your company’s identity and culture




If you found office furniture that have passed your standards–using the five factors mentioned above–buying it is the next step. Remember to thoroughly sanitize it first before bringing it to your office. Whether you have bought it from a thrift shop or a brand-new store, cleanliness is something you must not overlook. Clean furniture contributes to a cleaner, healthier office — which contributes to lesser employee absenteeism due to sickness.

The quest for the right type of office and furniture for your business may not be easy. Yet, it is an endeavour you must take for the sake of your company. You might be worn-out from days of searching, however, in the end, everything will be worth it. When your see your office space in all its completed glory–with it being a conducive environment for work–you’re ready to get your business started. After you get the sleep you deserve, of course.

Written by: Joanah Gamboa

Source: www.foundersguide.com

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Office Decor Ideas to Inspire Your Team’s Best Work (part-4)

19. Highlight attractive views

If your office has a scenic view, showcase it. Keep the windows open and hold important meetings nearby.

If your office doesn’t overlook mountain tops or the ocean, you can always add a backdrop or two. Etsy is always a good choice for interesting options, and you can categorize for waterproof, glare-free or wrinkle-free backdrops.

Whether big city buildings get you into boss-mode or palm trees are more your thing, you’re sure to find something that suits your style.


20. Get rid of office clutter

Very Messy Office

Papers, files and boxes of all sorts are bound to pile up after a while. Setting aside 20 minutes each day to clear out office junk will have your space looking clean and refreshed in no time.

For more ideas on how to organize your office, check out this post.


21. Don’t forget about office aromas


Having nice smells in your office makes for a pleasant workday. Invest in some air fresheners and make sure that the air circulation in your building is up to par. If you’re careful, you can also light some candles to keep your workspace smelling great.


22. Keep a fruit basket handy

fruit basket

There’s something about a big bowl of fresh, colorful fruit that gets you invigorated just by looking at it. Place a fruit basket in an unexpected place like the coffee table in the lobby.

Doing this not only makes for a pretty picture, you’re also encouraging healthy snacking!


23. File papers in “pretty” folders


Via Beyond the Picket Fence

Filing and organizing is about to become a lot more fun.

Administrative work can be daunting, and at times, numbing. But it must be done, so make this task more enjoyable by departmentalizing your papers with colorful folders. Blue for marketing, purple for billing and so on. Who knew filing could be stress-relieving?


24. Customize your computer desktop


This is an easy one, but essential. Simply add a picture or graphic that you know will keep you inspired throughout the day as your desktop wallpaper. Change it up every few weeks to keep things fresh and new ideas brewing.

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Wood in furniture industry-part5

Shrinkage and swelling

Wood undergoes dimensional changes when its moisture fluctuates below the fibre saturation point. Loss of moisture results in shrinkage, and gain in swelling. It is characteristic that these dimensional changes are anisotropic—different in axial, radial, and tangential directions. Average values for shrinkage are roughly 0.4 percent, 4 percent, and 8 percent, respectively (see table). Shrinkage in volume averages 12 percent, but large variations are exhibited among species. These values refer to changes from green to oven-dry condition and are expressed in percentage of green dimensions. The differential shrinkage and swelling in different growth directions is attributed mainly to cell wall structure. The difference between axial and the two lateral (radial and tangential) directions can be explained on the basis of respective orientation of microfibrils in the layers of the secondary cell wall, but the reasons for the differences between radial and tangential directions are not well understood.

Distortions in sawn wood due to shrinkage and swellingAt left are shown the initial (dark outlines) and final shapes that may result from differences in radial and tangential shrinkage, depending on the original position of the wood in the tree trunk. Various kinds of warping, at right, may result from differential shrinkage and swelling or from differences in the distribution of moisture content in the wood.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


In general, the factors that affect shrinkage and swelling are moisture content, density, content of extractives, mechanical stresses, and abnormalities in wood structure. The amount of shrinkage or swelling that occurs is approximately proportional to the change in moisture content. The higher the density of wood, the greater is its shrinkage and swelling, because denser (heavier) woods contain more moisture in their cell walls. For example, at the same moisture content, say, 15 percent, 1 cubic metre of a wood having a density of 0.8 gram per cc contains 120 kg of water, whereas the same volume of a wood having a density of 0.4 gram per cc contains only 60 kg of water. Extractives reduce shrinkage and swelling because they occupy spaces within cell walls that otherwise could be taken by water. Mechanical stresses (compression or tension) may cause permanent deformation of wood cells, which in turn affects shrinkage and swelling. Finally, abnormal structure results in greater shrinkage longitudinally but less in radial and tangential directions; change in volume remains about the same.


Dimensional changes in wood caused by shrinkage and swelling can result in opening or tightening of joints, change of cross-sectional shape, warping, checking (formation of cracks), case-hardening (release of stresses in resawing or other machining, with consequent warping), honeycombing (internal checking), and collapse (distortion of cells, causing a corrugated appearance of the surface of lumber). Thus, the fact that wood shrinks and swells constitutes a great obstacle to its utilization.

Several methods are used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. They include mechanical modification (reconstruction into such products as plywood, particleboard, and fibreboard), application of water-repellent coatings (paint or varnish), bulking treatment (maintaining the wood in swollen condition by use of salts, sugars, polyethylene glycol, synthetic resins, or other substances), and other (thermal or chemical) treatments. Except for reconstructing into products and surface coating, however, other methods are experimental or sufficiently expensive to limit their application to specialty items. Coatings do not reduce the quantity of moisture the wood can hold, but they slow the exchange of moisture between wood and atmosphere and, therefore, reduce the magnitude of dimensional changes of the wood in use. Most dimensional problems are caused by the use of wood with excessive moisture content. Instead, at the time of use the wood should have a moisture content at the approximate midpoint of the expected range in a particular location. This practice minimizes moisture content changes and, therefore, the adverse effects of shrinkage and swelling.


Mechanical properties

The mechanical, or strength, properties of wood (see table) are measures of its ability to resist applied forces that might tend to change its shape and size. Resistance to such forces depends on their magnitude and manner of application and to various characteristics of the wood such as moisture content and density. It is important to note that wood has drastically different strength properties parallel to the grain (i.e., in the axial direction) than it does across the grain (in the transverse direction).


The mechanical properties of wood include strength in tension and compression (as measured in axial and transverse directions), shear, cleavage, hardness, static bending, and shock (impact bending and toughness). Respective tests determine stresses per unit of loaded area (at the elastic limit and maximum load) and other criteria of strength, such as the modulus of elasticity (a criterion of stiffness), the modulus of rupture (bending strength), and toughness. Tests are normally conducted with small, clear specimens, usually 2 × 2 cm or 2 × 2 inches in cross section. Laboratory data are analyzed to produce working values of stresses, which are made available for use by engineers and architects in designing wooden structures. Tests are sometimes conducted with structural components of actual size. Individual cells (tracheids and fibres) also are subject to testing, since their strength relates to the strength of products—paper, for example. (The testing of materials to ascertain their mechanical, thermal, electrical, and other properties is discussed in the article materials testing.)

Density is the best index of the strength of clear wood; higher density indicates greater strength. The strength of wood is also influenced by its moisture content when it fluctuates below the fibre saturation point. Generally, a decrease in moisture content is accompanied by an increase in most strength properties. Temperature and duration of loading also affect strength. In general, strength falls as temperature rises. Wood loaded permanently will support a smaller maximum load than that indicated by short-term laboratory tests. The most important strength-reducing factors are wood defects, such as knots, compression and tension wood, and grain deviations. Their adverse effect depends on the kind and extent of the defects, their position, and the manner in which the wood is loaded.


Defects constitute the basis for rules by which lumber and other wood products are visually graded. These rules set limits on sizes of defects and other wood characteristics that affect strength—for example, rate of growth, which is expressed as rings per centimetre or inch. Also available are nondestructive grading techniques based on vibration, sound transmission, and mechanics. The latter technique makes use of a correlation established between the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity. This relationship allows the strength of a wooden member (e.g., a lumber board) to be determined with fair accuracy simply by passing it through a machine that applies a bending force. The less the deflection, the higher the predicted strength. Use of such machines in industry is still limited, however, and the main method remains the visual inspection of wood by skilled graders. Grading leads to more efficient utilization of wood and is essential in order to achieve adequate standards of safety in wooden structures. (Grading of hardwood and softwood lumber is discussed in the section Yield and grading.)


Thermal properties

Although wood expands and contracts with varying temperature, these dimensional changes are small compared with shrinkage and swelling caused by varying moisture content. In most cases, such temperature-related expansion and contraction are negligible and without practical importance. Only temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) have the potential to cause surface checks; in living trees, unequal contraction of outer and inner layers may result in frost cracks.

Wood exhibits a low thermal conductivity (high heat-insulating capacity) compared with materials such as metals, marble, glass, and concrete. Thermal conductivity is highest in the axial direction and increases with density and moisture content; thus, light, dry woods are better insulators.


When exposed to sufficiently high temperatures, wood burns. This property makes wood suitable for heating purposes but is disadvantageous for its technical utilization. The maximum heating value of one kilogram of oven-dry wood averages about 4,500 kilocalories (with a range of 4,100–6,800 kilocalories). In general, softwoods possess a higher heating value than hardwoods, and extractives have an important influence; for example, a kilogram of the oleoresin in pines has a heating value of about 8,500 kilocalories. Moisture reduces the heating value; air-dry wood has about 15 percent less heating value than oven-dry wood.


Wood must be raised to a temperature of about 250 °C (about 480 °F) for a spark or flame to ignite it, but at a temperature of about 500 °C (about 930 °F) ignition is spontaneous. The flammability of wood can be reduced by chemical treatment (see the section Preservation).


Electric properties

Oven-dry wood is electrically insulating. As moisture content increases, however, electric conductivity increases such that the behaviour of saturated wood (wood with maximum moisture content) approaches that of water. Noteworthy is the spectacular decrease of electric resistance as moisture content increases from zero to the fibre saturation point. Within this range, electric resistance decreases more than a billion times, whereas from the fibre saturation point to maximum moisture content, it decreases no more than about 50 times. Other factors, such as species and density, have little effect on the electric resistance of wood; differences among species are attributed to the chemistry of the extractives. Axial resistance is about half that of the transverse. Resistance increases with decreasing temperature; in oven-dry wood it doubles over a temperature drop of 12.5 °C (22.5 °F). Practical use of the relationship of wood’s moisture content to its electric resistance is made in electric moisture meters.

Important also are the dielectric, or poor-conductor, properties of wood. These properties—dielectric constant and power factor—assume a practical importance in drying wood with electric current (a theoretical possibility, although not presently a reality), gluing wood with high-frequency electric current, or making electric meters (capacity and radio-frequency power-loss type) for measuring its moisture content.


Wood exhibits the piezoelectric effect—that is, electric polarization (the appearance of opposite electric charges on opposite sides of a piece) occurs under mechanical stress. Conversely, when subjected to an electric field, wood exhibits mechanical deformation (changes in size).


Acoustic properties

Wood can produce sound (by direct striking) and can amplify or absorb sound waves originating from other bodies. For these reasons, it is a unique material for musical instruments and other acoustic applications. The pitch of sound produced depends on the frequency of vibration, which is affected by the dimensions, density, moisture content, and modulus of elasticity of the wood. Smaller dimensions, lower moisture content, and higher density and elasticity produce sounds of higher pitch.


When sound waves of extrinsic origin strike wood, they are partly absorbed and partly reflected, and the wood is set in vibration. The sound can be amplified, as in violins, guitars, organ pipes, and other musical instruments, or it can be absorbed, as in wooden partitions. Normally, wood absorbs a very small portion of acoustic energy (3–5 percent), but special constructions incorporating empty spaces and porous insulation boards can increase absorption to as high as 90 percent. The speed of sound in wood is about 3,500–5,000 metres (about 11,500–16,400 feet) per second axially and 1,000–1,500 metres (3,300–4,900 feet) per second transversely; the axial value approaches the speed of sound in iron and is 10 times higher than that in air. The velocity of sound in wood is reduced by moisture, which therefore contributes to faster damping of sound. For musical instruments, a preference exists for selected spruce wood, but fir, pine, maple, and tropical woods also are used. Abnormalities such as decay affect acoustic properties; use of this fact is made in nondestructive testing of wood.



Wood is subject to degradation by bacteria, fungi, insects, marine borers, and climatic, mechanical, chemical, and thermal factors. Degradation can affect wood of living trees, logs, or products, causing changes in appearance, structure, or chemical composition; these changes range from simple discoloration to alterations that render wood completely useless. It should be noted that wood can last for hundreds or thousands of years, as demonstrated, for example, by furniture and other wooden items found in excellent condition in the tombs of ancient Egyptian pharaohs (see Egyptian art). Wood is degraded or destroyed not with the passage of time but only under the action of external factors.


Bacteria are considered to be the cause of discolorations in the form of darker-coloured heartwood in living trees (a phenomenon called wetwood in fir and black heartwood in hybrid poplars). The colour lightens on exposure to air, and the properties of the wood are not seriously affected. Bacteria also appear during prolonged storage of wood in water, including seawater (e.g., in the case of old sunken ships). Acting in combination with physical and chemical factors related to submersion, they can cause considerable structural changes, leading to breakdown of the wood after exposure to air.


Fungi that attack wood are responsible for discoloration (stain) or decay. Blue stain (sap stain) of pines is the most common and serious consequence of attack by stain fungi. The sapwood becomes bluish or blackish, usually in wedge-shaped patches. Blue stain may appear very quickly in warm weather, sometimes within hours or days after the tree is felled or the green wood is sawed or otherwise processed. The degradation is mainly aesthetic (with a large reduction in the market value of the wood); among properties, only toughness appears to be affected.


Decay fungi are, by far, the most important cause of wood loss. Decay is not an innate property of wood, however; it takes place only if the conditions of exposure—namely, moisture, air, and temperature—are suitable for growth and activity of fungi. A moisture content below 20 percent inhibits growth of fungi, as do temperatures lower than 10 °C (50 °F) and higher than 30 °C (86 °F). If wood is kept under water, it cannot be attacked by fungi, because of insufficient oxygen. Toxic extractives contained in wood are a delaying factor and are the main reason for differences in resistance to decay among species, but no wood is immune.

Insects, like fungi, can attack the wood of living trees, logs, or products. Once trees are felled, the region between wood and bark (rich in nutrients) is especially vulnerable to insect attack, and for this reason prompt debarking is a protective measure. Insects bore holes and tunnels, and some reduce the interior of wood to dust, leaving only a thin outer layer. Conditions of exposure are the same as for fungi—suitable temperature, moisture, and air. Infested wood can be rendered free of insects at temperatures of 50–60 °C (122–140 °F), by the introduction of insecticides, or by exposure to toxic gases. Surface coatings of paint or varnish also offer some protection, reducing egg-laying sites.


Marine borers (certain species of mollusks and crustaceans) attack wooden structures in seawater (wharf pilings, boats, and other submerged wood) and cause severe damage. All wood species are vulnerable, but toxic extractives (as in certain tropical woods) provide some temporary protection. Preservative treatment imparts considerable resistance to these organisms.


Wood is also subject to degradation by changing climatic conditions (e.g., by rain and sunlight causing repeated wetting and drying), mechanical stresses (e.g., imposed on railroad ties), and exposure to chemicals (e.g., acids and alkalies). Furthermore, wood is destroyed by fire. Large-dimension timbers (such as glued laminated beams) offer more resistance for a certain time, and fire-retardant treatments are also available.


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Office Decor Ideas to Inspire Your Team’s Best Work (part-3)

13. Let team members personalize their spaces

Because everyone has their own taste and personal style when it comes to decor, encourage your team to integrate any elements that will keep them motivated throughout the day.

This can be something simple like a colorful planner that keeps them on track or something extravagant like a mural of their favorite artist.


14. Make the most of your natural lighting


Good lighting is one of the most important elements of a well-designed office. Your space can be equipped with the most unique furniture, the best color combinations and chic desks, but none of that will truly shine unless you have the right lighting.

Since natural lighting is always best, keep all window areas unobstructed to fill your workspace with as much natural light as possible. If your windows have blinds, keep them open during office house.


15. Have healthy snacks on display

Office Snack Delivery

Setting up a colorful display of snacks is an inviting and enticing way to get your team eating healthy throughout the day so they can stay sharp and focused.

Put a fruit bowl, snack bars and bottled water out for everyone to grab when they’re in need of some brain fuel.


16. Add a bookshelf

invest in personal development to boost employee engagement

If your office likes to keep ahead of the competition with professional development and business books, stock some of the office favorites on a bookshelf in a meeting space or community room.

If you don’t have room for this one, simply stack some books on a coffee table that relate to your company’s purpose and encourages creative thinking in a common area in the office.


17. Add stylish trash cans


Via Home Designing

You need trash cans around your office, so why not make them enjoyable to look at?

From stainless steel to top-loading restaurant style options, you’re sure to find a few that go with your office aesthetic.


18. Incorporate flowers

flowers on desk

Flowers are happy. They look good, they smell good and they make you feel good. Sprinkle vases around your space for an uplifting vibe that everyone is sure to appreciate.

Note: Clearly having fresh flowers can get costly, so opt for fake ones like these.

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Wood in furniture industry-part4

Density and specific gravity

Density is the weight or mass of a unit volume of wood, and specific gravity the ratio of the density of wood to that of water. In the metric system of measurement, density and specific gravity are numerically identical; for example, the average density of the wood of Douglas fir is 0.45 gram per cc, and its specific gravity 0.45, because 1 cc of water weighs 1 gram. (Expressed as weight per unit volume, 1 gram per cc is about 62.4 pounds per cubic foot.)


Determination of the density of wood is more difficult than for other materials because wood is hygroscopic (see the section Hygroscopicity); both its weight and volume are greatly influenced by moisture content. In order to obtain comparable figures, weight and volume are determined at specified moisture contents. Standards are oven-dry weight (practically zero moisture content) and either oven-dry or green volume (green referring to moisture content above the fibre saturation point, which averages about 30 percent). Other expressions of density, such as those based on air-dry weight and volume or on weight and volume of green wood, have a certain practical importance, as in shipping wood, but are not accurate.

The dry mass of wood in a given volume is determined by density, which is obtained by dividing the oven-dry weight by the volume, either oven-dry or green. Oven-dry volume is difficult to determine, at least by immersion in water, because of wood’s hygroscopicity. Oven-dry samples are first immersed in hot molten paraffin, to build a thin protective coating, before being immersed in water. With small wood samples, mercury is sometimes used instead of water; a special apparatus (Breuil volumeter) is available. For specimens that are regular in shape, volume can be calculated on the basis of their dimensions. In addition, radiation methods are used for direct measurement of density.


The density of a sample of wood can be appraised visually by observing the width (thickness) of growth rings and the proportion of latewood. In general, latewood, because of its thicker cell walls and smaller cell cavities, is denser than earlywood, and with increasing ring width its proportion decreases in softwoods and increases in ring-porous hardwoods. Therefore, wider rings indicate lower density in softwoods and higher density in ring-porous hardwoods. In diffuse-porous hardwoods latewood is not clearly distinct, and ring width is not an indication of density.


The density of temperate woods varies from about 0.3 to 0.9 gram per cc, but the range worldwide is approximately from 0.2 to 1.2 grams per cc (see table). Differences among species or samples of the same species are due to varying proportions of wood substance and void volume and to content of extractives. The density of wood substance is about 1.5 grams per cc, and practically no differences in this value exist among species.


Properties of certain species of wood






percent shrinkage


mechanical properties*











static bending (N/mm2)**



compression (N/mm2)**



tension (N/mm2)**



(side; kN)**2


























lignum vitae
(Guaiacum officinale)




0.1 5.6











. . .









. . .


. . . 15.8 . . .
white oak
(Quercus alba)
0.68 . . . 5.3 9.6 18.9 105 12,280








. . .


5.5 6.0 36.7
American beech
(Fagus grandifolia)
0.64 . . . 5.1 11.0 16.3 103 11,900








. . .


7.0 5.8 . . .
European chestnut
(Castanea sativa)
0.61 0.6 4.3 6.4 11.6 75 8,820





. . .





. . . 3.1 . . .
Scotch pine
(Pinus sylvestris)
0.53 0.4 4.0 7.7 12.4 98 11,760










2.9 2.4 . . .
Douglas fir
(Pseudotsuga menziesii)
0.48 . . . 5.0 7.8 11.8 83 13,660










2.3 3.2 31.7
Norway spruce
(Picea abies)
0.44 0.3 3.6 7.8 12.0 60 9,100










1.5 1.5 . . .
(Sequoia sempervirens)
0.40 . . . 2.6 4.4 6.8 69 9,250








. . .


1.7 2.1 13.0
(Ochroma lagopus)
0.16 0.6 2.4 4.4 7.5 19 2,550










1.0 0.4 . . .

*Based on specimens in air-dry condition (12-15% moisture content). **N = newton (about 0.22 pound); kN = 1,000 newtons. Source: Adapted from George Tsoumis, Science and Technology of Wood (1991).

Density affects the amount of moisture that wood can hold, its shrinkage and swelling, and its mechanical and other properties. In general, density is a measure of the quality of clear wood—that is, wood without defects.



Wood can absorb water as a liquid, if in contact with it, or as vapour from the surrounding atmosphere. Although wood can absorb other liquids and gases, water is the most important. Because of its hygroscopicity, wood, either as a part of the living tree or as a material, always contains moisture. (The terms water and moisture are used here without distinction.) Moisture affects all wood properties, but it should be noted that only moisture contained in cell walls is important; moisture in the cell cavities merely adds weight.


The amount of moisture held in cell walls varies from about 20 to 40 percent, but for practical purposes it is taken to be 30 percent (expressed as percentages of the oven-dry weight of wood). The theoretical point at which cell walls are completely saturated and cell cavities are empty is known as the fibre saturation point. Beyond this point, moisture goes into the cavities, and, when they are completely filled, the maximum moisture content that wood can hold is reached. This maximum, which depends mainly on density, can be very high. For example, a very light wood, such as balsa, can hold as much as 800 percent moisture, pine 250 percent, and beech 120 percent.

The moisture content of the wood of living trees varies from about 30 to 300 percent depending on species, position of the wood in the tree, and season of the year. When green wood is exposed to the atmosphere, its moisture content gradually decreases. Moisture in the cell cavities is lost first. In time, moisture content falls to levels ranging (for temperate-zone localities and under shelter) from about 6 to 25 percent (average 12 to 15 percent). Local conditions of air temperature and relative humidity dictate the final moisture level. Species and dimensions of wood have no practical influence on the final moisture level, although refractory species and wood of larger dimensions require more time to reach it. It is important to note, however, that, because of hygroscopicity, the moisture content of air-dry wood does not remain unchanged, even when the wood is kept under shelter. On the contrary, it is subject to continuous change, within certain limits, as a result of changing air temperature and relative humidity.


The moisture content of a sample of wood is calculated on the basis of its current and oven-dry weight. It also can be determined directly with portable electric moisture meters, which measure the change of electrical properties of wood as a function of changing moisture content.


Hygroscopicity is of primary importance because moisture in wood affects all wood properties. For example, moisture content can increase weight 100 percent or more, with consequent effects on transportation costs. Variation in moisture content causes wood to shrink or swell, altering its dimensions. Resistance to decay and insects is greatly affected. The working, gluing, and finishing of wood and its mechanical, thermal, and acoustic properties are all influenced by moisture content. Also affected are processing operations, such as drying, preservative treatment, and pulping.

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